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Time and Tide Wait For None

“Time and Tide wait for none”, the substance of the proverb is to utilize the dispensed time in imaginative and positive interests instead of in contrary and time-squandering interests. Time once lost can never be recaptured. So if in the age-fitting circumstance, you don’t utilize time, you will need to stay in lament for the remainder of your lifetime. An understudy who shields away his school a long time out of gear interests will consistently feel the touch of the absence of training, regardless of how high he reaches or how far he voyages.

On the off chance that you don’t go through long periods of warmth and solace in the organization of friends and family, you will consistently feel the spot of it once you lose your folks or your youngsters grow up, or the adoration for your life leaves.

Time is the most important and valuable thing on the planet. Additionally, we should utilize it for our high just as to benefit others around us. not wasting time will support us and the general public to advance towards a superior tomorrow. Besides, we should show our youngsters the significance and estimation of the time. Likewise, sitting around will just lead you to make an issue you and the individuals around you. For adequately using the time we should consider a few focuses which will help us in our entire life.

This usage incorporates defining objectives, plan work records, organize errand, and take satisfactory rest and different others. For adequately using time set long and transient objectives, these objectives will help you in staying profitable. Also, they will demonstrate as the main thrust that will keep you roused. Additionally, this will give the readiness to accomplish something throughout everyday life. Before all else, it will feel like an exhausting undertaking; however, when you do it routinely, then you will understand that it just causes you to build your profitability.

At last, this will compel you to accomplish more throughout everyday life. Organizing task is an extremely compelling method of overseeing time. Likewise, as a result of it, you will know the significance of different errand and occupations.

Henceforth, it will assist you in achieving more throughout everyday life. Being beneficial doesn’t imply that you connect with yourself in various undertakings unfailingly. Taking legitimate rest and practicing is likewise part of being profitable. Besides, appropriate exercise and rest keep up a harmony among body and brain, which is significant for being productive and effective.

Courtesy :  AplusTopper

Festival of Colours – Holi

Holi is a popular ancient Hindu festival, also known as the “Festival of Love”, the “Festival of Colours”, and the “Festival of Spring”. The festival celebrates the eternal and divine love of Radha and Krishna. It also signifies the triumph of good over evil, as it celebrates the victory of Lord Vishnu as Narasimha Narayana over Hiranyakashipu. It originated and is predominantly celebrated in Nepal & India but has also spread to other regions of Asia and parts of the Western world through the diaspora from the Indian subcontinent.

Holi celebrates the arrival of spring, the end of winter, the blossoming of love and for many, it is a festive day to meet others, play and laugh, forget and forgive, and repair broken relationships. The festival also celebrates the beginning of a good spring harvest season. It lasts for a night and a day, starting on the evening of the Purnima (Full Moon Day) falling in the Hindu calendar month of Phalguna, which falls around middle of March in the Gregorian calendar. The first evening is known as Holika Dahan (burning of Demon Holika) or Chhoti Holi and the following day as Holi, Rangwali HoliDol PurnimaDhuletiDhulandi, UkuliManjal KuliYaosangShigmo or Phagwah, Jajiri.

Holi is an ancient Hindu religious festival that has become popular among non-Hindus as well in many parts of South Asia, as well as people of other communities outside Asia. In addition to India and Nepal, the festival is celebrated by Indian subcontinent diaspora in countries such as Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In recent years, the festival has spread to parts of Europe and North America as a spring celebration of love, frolic, and colours.

Holi celebrations start on the night before Holi with a Holika Dahan where people gather, perform religious rituals in front of the bonfire, and pray that their internal evil be destroyed the way Holika, the sister of the demon king Hiranyakashipu, was killed in the fire. The next morning is celebrated as Rangwali Holi (Dhuleti) – a free-for-all festival of colours, where people smear each other with colours and drench each other. Water guns and water-filled balloons are also used to play and colour each other. Anyone and everyone is fair game, friend or stranger, rich or poor, man or woman, children, and elders. The frolic and fight with colours occurs in the open streets, parks, outside temples and buildings. Groups carry drums and other musical instruments, go from place to place, sing and dance. People visit family, friends and foes come together to throw coloured powders on each other, laugh and gossip, then share Holi delicacies, food and drinks. In the evening, people dress up and visit friends and family.

Negative Effects of Social Media on Mental Well-Being

Social media has forever changed the way humans interact. We no longer have to meet face to face, send emails or wait until we get home make phone calls to keep in contact with distant relatives or friends who live out of town. Now people can post on their stories, timelines, go live or even quickly snapchat their friends off their smartphones. The evolution of social media has drastically changed the easiness of everyday life. By opening the applications on our phones for Facebook or Instagram all we need to do is click on a button in order to share a picture of our most recently selfie or create a post about current thoughts for people to like and comment on. Social media users feel a need or desire to post often to keep people up to date with their life and to constantly check what other people are doing so that they know how to fit in. Even though social media has many positives and benefits, there are many negatives that come along with it. The pressure is higher than ever to fit in with societal norms. New ideas of beautiful, new styles and trendy ascetics appear every day which produces added stress for people to keep up with the trends. The idea that we need to look a certain way, be a certain size, wear specific styles and constantly be up to date on the newest trends causes an obsession by social media users. We no longer post on social media the things that we like and enjoy but instead we are posting to fulfill a certain standard and show that we do things that are considered in style/cool/popular. Social media changed our lives by promoting that its users follow a trend instead of forming their own path. Self-esteem and mental well-being are negatively affected by social media. I critically analyzed four research papers and found links between social media use and negative self-esteem. For this papers literature review, I will use the topic/categorical structure to cover my four sources. I believe that social media use contributes to lower self-esteem found in women and men in today’s culture. All of the four research papers I chose also agree that people’s tendencies on social media sites do indeed affect levels of their self-esteem.

Literature Review

Since the launch of Facebook in 2004, social media has taken over the lives of thousands of people from all around the world. Social media allows us to interact with people in different ways and perceive ourselves and other in new ways. Whether we like to believe it or not, social media does have negative effects on our self-esteem and mental well-being. According to Ahn Phung the definition of self-esteem can be described as a personal judgment of the worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes the individual holds towards himself, or put it more simply, self-esteem is the attitude that people have toward their own values (Phung p. 2). Many scholars have done studies on how/if social media does affect mental well-being. The four sources I chose did preform studies that ended up proving that social media does affect self-esteem and mental well-being. Each of these studies came up with a research question, tested their hypothesis and came to a conclusion. While all of their studies and research questions varied a little, the conclusion ended up proving the same point. In an article by Angie Zuo, she sought to investigate the relation between Facebook use, social comparison, and mental health outcomes. This is component one of my categorical/topic structure. Her hypothesis stated: “(H1) Individuals who spent more time using Facebook would make more social comparisons (both upward and downward) than individuals who did not spend as much time using Facebook and (H2) individuals who made more social comparisons would have lower self-esteem and more negative mental health outcomes” (Zuo, 2014). To test her hypothesis, she created a measure that asked the participants to report the ways that they compared themselves to other people. After her studies was conducted and her results were completed for both hypothesis’, she found that for (H1) “the results showed that the number of minutes spent using social networking sites per day was significantly correlated with comparisons about appearance. This indicates that the more time an individual spends on social networking sites per day, the more likely they are to make comparisons about appearances, which supports our hypothesis” (Zuo, 2014). She also found that for (H2) “Overall, we found that higher levels of social comparison were indeed associated with lower self-esteem and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoia, and sensitivity. Our hypotheses were supported” (Zuo, 2014). Angie Zuo, from the University of Michigan research found direct links between self-esteem, mental well-being and social media use. As people have more exposure to social media, in this case Facebook, there levels of self-esteem dropped as they made social comparisons which made their mental health more negative as well. She found that there were positive correlations with lower self-esteem and negative well-being. Zuo’s investigation positively supports my research question that heavy social media use does affect self-esteem and mental well-being.

Similar to Angie Zuo’s findings on how social media can lead to self-esteem issues, I analyzed a second article based off a similar topic. For my second component of my categorical/topic structure of my literature review I analyzed Anh Phung’s article on Social media and Self-esteem. Her hypothesis is “people who focus the attention on others profile are likely to feel less confident about themselves when exposed to social media” (Phung p.8). In order to find out if her hypothesis is correct, she began a study by collecting and analyzing data from an online study in which she created. The reason she used an online study was because she considered it to be the fastest and most efficient way to get information for her research on the topic. Through her online study she asked questions regarding the respondent’s demographics, how often they check social media on a number scale ranging from almost never to several times a day and their own person level of self-esteem. After Phungs data had been collected and evaluated, she found that her original hypothesis had been supported by the data she received. Phung concludes her research question by saying “I will be able to conclude that other-centered activities indicate lower level of self-esteem in users. I believe my conclusion contributes to the research on the effects that social media has on people’s mentality” (p.11). Anh Phung found connections between self-esteem and social media use. The more often people checked their social media then more likely they were to have negative feelings about themselves. Just like Angie Zuo’s findings, Anh Phung found similar connections between social media use and negative feelings towards self-esteem.

Social media sites that we encounter everyday give plenty of chances for its users to feel self-esteem issues while scrolling through hundreds of friends and famous people’s pictures and posts. While you may not have noticed self-esteem issues, you may find that you make social comparisons between yourself and others. On sites such as Facebook people have the ability to create a profile, post the best pictures of themselves and focus their profile around their most desirable traits and best self-views. Whereas face to face interactions you may not see those qualities at first or allow for the same degree of contemplation (Vogel, 2014). Erin A. Vogel, Jason P. Rose, Lindsay R. Roberts, and Katheryn Eckles from the University of Toledo created an article that I will use for my third component of my categorical/topic structure titled, Social comparison, Social media and Self-esteem. In order to find common links between social media, social comparison and self-esteem they created a hypothesis to test. Their hypothesis is “we anticipate that people who use Facebook more frequently will have poorer self-esteem and that this relationship will be mediated by upward social comparison on Facebook” (Vogel, 2014).  To test their hypothesis, they used a correlational study by examining the relationship between Facebook use and self-esteem. The participants for this study were college students and they completed questionaries’ that covered Facebook use, self-esteem and the amount of times they found themselves making social comparisons. After conducting their research, exanimating their hypothesis and connecting the two, they found that “Critically, as expected, frequency of Facebook use was negatively correlated with self-esteem where participants with more exposure to Facebook tended to evaluate themselves more poorly. Frequency of Facebook use was also associated with an increase in the extent to which participants reported making social comparisons on Facebook” (Vogel, 2014). As they expected and as I expected, there was a relationship between social media use and negative self-esteem. Just as Zuo and Phung came to the same conclusion that these two topics intertwined, so has Vogel. Social media is proving through various accounts of research to have negative effects on self-esteem. It has also caused viewers to make social comparisons that are also affecting one’s self-esteem.

For my fourth and final component of my categorical/topic structure I critically analyzed another article on the topic of self-esteem and social media use. In an article written by Jasmine Fardouly, Phillippa C. Diedrich, Lenny R. Vartanian and Emma Halliwell they examined Social comparisons on social media: the impact of Facebook on young women’s body image concerns and mood. This article connects with my past three critically analyzed articles because it focuses on how social media affects woman’s body image/self-esteem. They tested their hypothesis in a different way than the last three articles did. Their hypothesis speculated that “the effect of Facebook usage on women’s mood and body image, whether these effects differ from an online fashion magazine, and whether appearance comparison tendency moderates any of these effects” (Fardouly, 2014). The female participants were randomly assigned to spend ten minutes looking at an appearance-neutral controlled website, a magazine website or their own Facebook accounts. After completing these ten minutes of looking at their randomly assigned subjects, they had to complete a state of measure of mood, body dissatisfaction and appearance (skin, weight, face and hair related) (Fardouly, 2014). While reading this research, I found this survey to be the most interesting because of the three different websites the participants had to look at. Based off these women’s results they found that the participants who had to spend their time looking at Facebook reported being in more of a negative mood than those other women who looked at the magazine website and controlled website. Their hypothesis was proven to be correct since they found that there was yet again, a connection between social media and self-esteem issues, in this case body image.

Conclusion

Through my extensive effort of analyzing four research articles and providing their hypothesis, research methods and conclusions, I have also come to the conclusion that my research question of “does heavy social media use affect one’s self-esteem and mental well-being?” has been answered. Based off the evidence I have provided and research I have done, I think my hypothesis is correct that heavy social media use does affect one’s self-esteem which moreover, affects one’s mental being. Mental well-being and self-esteem can be affected by social comparison, body image or overall dissatisfaction with the way we look and present ourselves. Given this subjects popularity, I think that even articles I did not read and analyze might come to the same conclusion. If heavy social media use leads to negative thoughts, how can we make positive thoughts occur without having to lessen our social media use? Social media is a critical part in today’s society, bringing light to the negatives will hopefully make it so more people can focus on positive self-esteem.

The Impact of Globalization in India

“Globalization can be defined as the process of social, political, economic, cultural, and technological integration among countries around the world.” (Luthans & Doh, 2018, p. 7). This concept has paved the way for Multinational Corporations to expand their business to all Countries. The expansion of ideas has made the face paced world now even faster. So, what does this mean for businesses? Globalization allows businesses to communicate efficiently and timely through technology, Corporations can travel to see their direct work in a country due to the advancement of transportation, and off-shoring of businesses has become quite common and beneficial to both home and foreign Country. This paper will include an analysis of Indian culture and what that means for globalization, and it will discuss three major topics of globalization in detail. These include, Technology, Transportation, and Off-shoring of business.

Indian Culture

Indian culture is rich and diverse. In order to understand globalization and its impact on India, it is important to unpack the Indian culture, particularly in business and management. Family seems to be very important in the Indian culture. The divorce rate in India is very low, and they hold marriage at a very high standard. (India| Etiquette, Customs).  This could be very important in a business aspect being that some smaller businesses are family oriented and staff is more likely to be related/family in some way. Indian culture is also known for their traditional clothing. Called the “sari” for women and the “dhoti” for men. (India| Etiquette, Customs). These fashions are loose and flowy, covering most of the body. India is known for its modesty and this etiquette can also translate over into business. (India | Etiquette, Customs). This can tell us that building relationships is key in Indian culture and business and management. “When first meeting someone, it is common to be introduced by a third party” (India | Etiquette, Customs). This shows how important a first meeting can be. Multinational Corporations needs to be cautious when meeting Indian partners for the first time. Getting to know them first will be key in gaining trust, and ultimately a business partner.

Globalization has affected Indian culture in both positive and negative ways.  With the expansion of social media throughout the world, Family values, clothing, and even business etiquette have transformed to a more Western like approach. Indian families are becoming more diverse, with women being held of the household which was almost unheard of beforehand (Rao, et al., 2013).  Due to globalization you can now see traditional Indian clothing fading. In India, people are wearing pants, t shirts, blouses (Impact, 2017). Overall globalization is shaping the world to look more alike everywhere. The same dress, clothing, language is all spreading. This will spread into business management practices as well. While, business may not be held the same way in every country, the way everyone thinks is becoming more alike. This being a positive or negative thing is something to decide, but ideas are spreading, and culture is changing everywhere.

Technology

Technology is key in society and expansion of business and management in this day in age. Everyone has smart phones and uses social media. Telecommunications are becoming a prime investment for multinational corporations in India and other countries as well. “1 billion wireless devices are in circulation in India” (Luthans & Doh, 2018, p. 65).  This shows that globalization is impacting India and their telecommunications sector of business. According to ibef.org, India is ranked second in the world, in the amount of app downloads and cell phone subscriptions (Brand India, 2017). The market size is growing tremendously in India and people are interested. There is also major room for growth and investment in the telecommunications sector in India. India still contains a good amount of rural area, and there is great room for expansion of business into these areas. According to ibef.org, 70 percent of the population in the country lives in a rural community. (Brand India, 2017). There is still a lot of impact to be made in these rural areas with telecommunications. Recently, Two big cell phone companies in India, Vodafone India and Idea Cellular merged into Vodafone Idea (Brand India, 2017). This merger has shown the big movement toward telecommunication in the Country. Globalization of technology has had a major impact on this transformation in telecommunications in India. Without the spreading of ideas around the globe, this type of technology would not be able to grow and prosper. People would not be able to call one another at the drop of hat. The globalization of technology has ultimately changed the way we communicate. This effects big businesses, in that they can communicate new ideas quickly and efficiently. It also effects smaller, local businesses and even agriculture. With technology you can sell your product at the drop of hat, with a push of a button.

Transportation

Transportation has transformed in big ways in the last decade due to globalization. Carriages and wagons have transformed into in cars and airplanes. In almost all countries we can fly in planes or jets and get to a different country in only a few hours. You can physically be in a different country quicker than ever before. This means the movement of goods to consumers can be done quickly and efficiently in a different country. Businesses can operate faster and more efficiently. Also, Multinational Corporations can travel to a place of business to see how it is running and being managed using these new modes of transportation.

Transportation seems to be a slow development in India, not that the Country does not have the means of transportation but that it is not as advanced as it could be due to globalization. With a population of 1.3 billion, only about 5 percent of Indian families own cars with the main form of transportation in the country being public (Transportation, 2018).  Meaning most people are using buses and taxis to get around. This is due to road being overcrowded, small and not properly maintained because of low budgeting within the country (Transportation, 2018).

India’s railway system seems to be the most effected by globalization as far as advancement. Considered one of the busiest railroad systems in the world, the railway plays a big part in the Indian economy (Transportation, 2018). The Indian government also has proposed a plan for bullet trains in India. These trains will almost cut the time in half it takes to travel.  The trains will be purchased from Japan, and manufacturing will be done in India as they open plants. Bids are being considered by Kawasaki and other companies (Preske, 2018). This advancement in the railway system will open new jobs by way of manufacturing plants, and the people of India will be greatly affected in that they can travel faster and more efficiently. This shows globalization in India with a combination of technology and transportation. The two categories go hand in hand, especially as the world get’s more advanced. As India’s technology advances, their transportation and aspects of it will advance as well. India will have a way to advance railways for the rest of the world due to the bullet trains. Globalization in India has impacted transportation and will continue to do so in the future.

Off- Shoring in India

Offshoring can be defined as “The process by which companies undertake some activities at offshore locations instead of in their countries of origin”. (Luthans & Doh, 2018, p. 7). Offshoring can be an asset to a business in that by offshoring to a foreign country, the business can save money in ways like manufacturing, payment of employees, and saving taxes. (India Representation Company, 2016).  As mentioned earlier, India has a very high population and due to the advancement of offshoring because of globalization it is a very sought out Country to offshore business to because of this.

Globalization has allowed offshoring to grow in great ways. Globalization has allowed Countries in different time zones to longer be looked at as a disadvantage. For example, between the United States and India there is about a 10-hour time difference depending on your time zone. If you have a company in India, the employees in India can be preparing contracts while your U.S. employees are sleeping. In the morning the contracts are ready for the U.S. employees to view and work on as needed. (India Representation Company, 2016). This allows a company the advantage to be always working and growing their business. It also helps the employees to not be overworked in that they are only doing their job, during their time. The business now runs like a machine from across the globe all due to globalization.

India’s biggest offshoring industry is Information Technology. (India Representation Company, 2016). The people of India are known for being very smart and technologically savvy. This makes them a very large asset to businesses in the United States. Offshoring of I.T. to India boosts India’s economy by providing more jobs for more workers and boosts the home country by decreased expenses as well as increased productivity.

Overall globalization has widely had an impact on offshoring in India. Due to the expansion of offshoring in India the economy has boosted. The advantages of a large population and skilled workers has put them at the top in offshoring of businesses like Information Technology.

Conclusion

Globalization is a phenomenon that has impacted the entire world. The growth and spread of ideas from Country to Country has made it possible for the world to grow faster and more efficient in business. India has gone from a Country with little to offer, to a Country with a wide variety of skills and assets, all made possible by globalization. The culture has changed from one of traditional values, clothing, food, to a culture with an open mind of women’s rights’, western clothing. Technology has advanced in India like never before, with a smart phone in every hand and communication at everyone’s fingertips. Trains that move at high speeds are getting people from place to place more efficiently than in the past. Companies are expanding into to different Countries to better their businesses. Overall, globalization has made a major impact in India. The spread of ideas has allowed the Country to grow and further advance the things it was already good at. Technology, Transportation, and Offshoring are just three aspects of globalization that have had an impact in India. As new ideas come and spread through globalization, India will grow in new ways in the future.

World Day of Social Justice

World Day of Social Justice (Social Justice Equality Day) is an international day recognizing the need to promote social justice, which includes efforts to tackle issues such as poverty, exclusion, gender equality, unemployment, human rights, and social protections. Many organizations, including the UN, American Library Association (ALA), and the International Labour Organization, make statements on the importance of social justice for people. Many organizations also present plans for greater social justice by tackling poverty, social and economic exclusion and unemployment. The United Nations General Assembly has decided to observe 20 February annually, approved on 26 November 2007 and starting in 2009, as the World Day of Social Justice.

 

Source: Wikipedia

 

World Wetlands Day

World Wetlands Day is an environmentally related celebration which dates back to the year of 1971 when several environmentalists gathered to reaffirm the protection and love for wetlands. For those who don’t know, wetlands are the small environments of plant life and organisms found within water bodies that bring about ecological health in abundance to not only water bodies but environments as a whole. The World Wetlands Secretary Department is originally from Gland, Switzerland and in accordance to the beginning of World Wetlands Day, the Ramsar convention first attributed this recognition in “the Iranian city of Ramsar on the shores of the Caspian Sea”.

World Wetlands Day is celebrated on the second day of February every year, though it was not originally celebrated until 1997. This day serves to recognize the influence and positive production that Wetlands have had on the world and in terms brings communities together for the benefit of Mother Nature. This day, also raises global awareness because wetlands play a significant role not only in people but in the planet. Community protectors and environmental enthusiast all come together on this day to celebrate their love for nature through celebration, which recognizes what wetlands have done for not only us humans, but all sorts of organisms in this world.

Over time, human construction has led to various ecological problems affecting wetlands. Over-population and construction has led to a decrease in environmental conservation and in total has brought upon issues to these marvelous lands. Many wetlands are being lost and we must recognize this dilemma before we lose a natural filter and conserver of the world. Whenever you look into a water body and see a small environment of plant life and organisms, a wetland is in observation and we as world community should protect these dear communities of life.This is why we celebrate wetlands on World Wetlands Day!

 

Source: Wikipedia

World Braille Day

World Braille Day is an international day on 4 January and celebrates awareness of the importance of braille as a means of communication in the full realization of the human rights for blind and visually impaired people. The date for the event was chosen by the  United Nations General Assembly via a proclamation in November 2018, and marks the birthday of Louis Braille, creator of this writing system. The first World Braille Day was celebrated on January 4, 2019.

Source: Wikipedia

International Human Solidarity Day

The International Human Solidarity Day (IHSD), observed on December 20, is an international annual unity day of the United Nations and its member states introduced by the general assembly during the 2005 World Summit. It was established on December 22, 2005 by resolution 60/209. Its main goal is to recognize the universal values of poor by making the associated countries aware of reducing poverty and to formulate its countermeasures as signed by the independent states. IHSD is a part of World Solidarity Fund and United Nations Development Program focused on to achieve goals set for worldwide poverty eradication.

According to the United Nations, the International Human Solidarity Day is

  • a day to celebrate our unity in diversity;
  • a day to remind governments to respect their commitments to international agreements;
  • a day to raise public awareness of the importance of solidarity;
  • a day to encourage debate on the ways to promote solidarity for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals including poverty eradication;
  • a day of action to encourage new initiatives for poverty eradication.

The International Human Solidarity Day was established under the influence of the U.N. Millennium Declaration that determines the civil and political rights of an individual in the modern era by establishing the foreign relations between the member states and the U.N. The General Assembly of December 22, 2005 by resolution 60/209 recognized solidarity as one of the fundamental and universal values and proclaimed the International Human Solidarity Day. IHSD is held every year on December 20 to promote the importance of sharing and the culture of solidarity to combat poverty and to encourage governments, NGOs, and almost every individual to organize programs and debates either on a national or international level so that poverty can be reduced by spreading the awareness. An individual can participate or celebrate the day either by contributing to education or help the poor. This day is also celebrated by helping socially or mentally challenged people. However, governments are much expected to respond the poverty and other barriers in society through Sustainable Development Goals, designed to facilitate good future for all.

Source: Wikipedia

International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women

The United Nations General assembly has designated November 25 as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women (Resolution 54/134). The premise of the day is to raise awareness of the fact that women around the world are subject to rape, domestic violence and other forms of violence; furthermore, one of the aims of the day is to highlight that the scale and true nature of the issue is often hidden. For 2014, the official Theme framed by the UN Secretary-General’s campaign UNiTE to End Violence against Women, is Orange your neighbourhood. For 2018, the official theme is “Orange the World:#HearMeToo” and for 2019 it is “Orange the World: Generation Equality Stands Against Rape”

Historically, the date is based on the date of the 1960 assassination of the three Mirabal sisters, political activists in the Dominican Republic; the killings were ordered by Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo (1930–1961). In 1981, activists at the Latin American and Caribbean Feminist Encuentros marked November 25 as a day to combat and raise awareness of violence against women more broadly; on December 17, 1999, the date received its official United Nations (UN) resolution.The UN and the Inter-Parliamentary Union have encouraged governments, international organizations and NGOs to organize activities to support the day as an international observance.

Source : wikipedia

Article 370 of the Constitution of India

Article 370 of the Indian constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, a region located in the northern part of Indian subcontinent which was administered by India as a state from 1954 to 31 October 2019, conferring it with the power to have a separate constitution, a state flag and autonomy over the internal administration of the state. The Indian-administerd Jammu and Kashmir is part of the larger region of Kashmir which has been a subject of dispute since 1947 between India, Pakistan and, partly, China,

The article was drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution titled “Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions”. The Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, after its establishment, was empowered to recommend the articles of the Indian constitution that should be applied to the state or to abrogate the Article 370 altogether. After consultation with the state’s Constituent Assembly, the 1954 Presidential Order was issued, specifying the articles of the Indian constitution that applied to the state. Since the Constituent Assembly dissolved itself without recommending the abrogation of Article 370, the article was deemed to have become a permanent feature of the Indian Constitution.

This article, along with Article 35A, defined that the Jammu and Kashmir state’s residents live under a separate set of laws, including those related to citizenship, ownership of property, and fundamental rights, as compared to residents of other Indian states. As a result of this provision, Indian citizens from other states could not purchase land or property in Jammu & Kashmir.

On 5 August 2019, the Government of India issued a constitutional order superseding the 1954 order, and making all the provisions of the Indian constitution applicable to Jammu and Kashmir based on the resolution passed in both houses of India’s parliament with 2/3 majority. Following the resolutions passed in both houses of the parliament, he issued a further order on 6 August declaring all the clauses of Article 370 except clause 1 to be inoperative.

In addition, the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 was passed by the parliament, enacting the division of the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories to be called Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territory of Ladakh. The reorganisation took place on 31 October 2019.

Source: Wikipedia