Rukhmabai, the first Indian woman physician

Rukhmabai Raut (born November 22, 1864 – September 25, 1955), was an Indian woman who became one of the first practicing women doctors in colonial India. However, first lady physician of India was Dr. Anandi Gopal Joshi, who got her degree on 11 March 1886. But Dr. Joshi could not practise more than a year and so the credit of 1st practising lady physician on the basis of more duration goes to Dr. Rukhmabai Raut, who joined her medical course in 1889 and returned to India in 1894. Dr. Rukhmabai practised for more than 50 years in India.

Ded to India as a first qualified physician and worked for many years in Rajkot and Surat

Rukhmabai was born in Maharashtrian (Marathi) family to Janardhan Pandurang and Jayantibai who came from a community of carpenters(Sutars). When Janardhan Pandurang died, Jayantibai transferred her property to Rukhmabai who was only eight and when she turned eleven, she married her daughter off to Dadaji Bhikaji, then aged nineteen. Jayantibai married a widower, Dr Sakharam Arjun but Rukhmabai stayed in the family home and studied at home using books from a Free Church Mission library. Rukhmabai and her mother were regulars at the weekly meetings of the Prarthanä Samäj and the Arya Mahilä Samäj.[1] Dadaji lost his mother and took to living with his maternal uncle Narayan Dhurmaji. The environment of Dhurmaji’s home pushed Dadaji into a life of indolence and waywardness. Dhurmaji had a mistress at home and his wife attempted suicide. Rukhmabai at the age of twelve refused to move to the household of Dhurmaji to live with Dadaji and Sakharam Arjun supported her decision. In March 1884, Dadaji sent a letter, through his lawyers Chalk and Walker, to Sakharam Arjun asking him to stop preventing Rukhmabai from joining him. Sakharam Arjun responded through civil letters that he was not preventing her but soon he too was forced to obtain legal help. Through lawyers Payne, Gilbert, and Sayani, Rukhmabai provided grounds for refusing to join Dadaji. Dadaji claimed that Rukhmabai was being kept away because she could assert the rights to the property of her father’s.

Children’s Day

Nehru_sweets_oratarians_NongpohIn India, Children’s Day is celebrated on 14 November, on the birthday of the first Prime Minister of independent India, who was fondly called Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru) or Chachaji (Uncle), and who emphasized the importance of giving love and affection to children, to give him tribute. After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, it was unanimously decided to celebrate his birthday as Bal Diwas or Children’s Day in India.

Independence Day (India)

indian-flag---story-size_647_081515021254Independence Day is annually observed on 15th August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation’s independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly. India still retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to full republican constitution. India attained independence following the Independence Movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British India was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties, and the displacement of nearly 15 million people due to religious violence. On 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had become the first Prime Minister of India that day, raised the Indian national flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the prime minister customarily raises the flag and gives an address to the nation.

The holiday is observed throughout India with flag-hoisting ceremonies, parades and cultural events. There is a national holiday, and schools and government offices distribute sweets, but no official work is done.

World Nature Conservation Day

Celebrated on July 28 each year, World Nature Conservation Day recognizes that a healthy environment is the foundation for a stable and productive society and to ensure the well-being of present and future generations, we all must participate to protect, conserve, and sustainably manage our natural resources.

We all depend on natural resources like water, air, soil, minerals, trees, animals, food, and gas to live our daily lives.

To keep the balance in the natural world, we must also help various species to continue to exist. A report from the global conservation organization World Wildlife Foundation suggests that since 1970, the pressure that we exert on the planet has doubled and the resources upon which we depend have declined by 33 percent. Despite the efforts put into conservation by organizations and conservation activists, their work has been undermined by those who have interests.

 

World Population Day

World Population Day, which seeks to focus attention on the urgency and importance of population issues, was established by the then-Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme in 1989, an outgrowth of the interest generated by the Day of Five Billion, which was observed on 11 July 1987.

By resolution 45/216 of December 1990, the United Nations General Assembly decided to continue observing World Population Day to enhance awareness of population issues, including their relations to the environment and development.

The Day was first marked on 11 July 1990 in more than 90 countries. Since then, a number of  a number of UNFPA country offices and other organizations and institutions commemorate World Population Day, in partnership with governments and civil society.

World Environment Day

World Environment Day (WED) occurs on 5 June every year, and is the United Nation’s principal vehicle for encouraging worldwide awareness and action for the protection of our environment. First held in 1974, it has been a flagship campaign for raising awareness on emerging environmental issues from marine pollution, human overpopulation, and global warming, to sustainable consumption and wildlife crime. WED has grown to become a global platform for public outreach, with participation from over 143 countries annually. Each year, WED has a new theme that major corporations, NGOs, communities, governments and celebrities worldwide adopt to advocate environmental causes.

Since it began in 1972, global citizens have organized many thousands of events, from neighbourhood clean-ups, to action against wildlife crime, to replanting forests.

‘Connecting People to Nature’, the theme for World Environment Day 2017, implores us to get outdoors and into nature, to appreciate its beauty and its importance, and to take forward the call to protect the Earth that we share.This year’s host country Canada got to choose the theme and will be at the centre of celebrations around the planet.

National Technology Day

National Technology Day is a very special day for Indian Technology since 1999. It is so significant because India achieved a huge technological advancement on the day. The first, indigenous aircraft “Hansa-3” was test flown at Bangalore on this day. Not only this, India also performed successful test firing of the Trishul missile on the same day. India also executed three successful nuclear tests, carried out at Pokhran, in Rajasthan May 11.

11th May, 1998,that India achieved a major technological breakthrough by successfully carrying out series of nuclear tests at Pokhran. Also the first, indigenous aircraft “Hansa-3” was test flown from Bangalore on this day and India also performed successful test firing of the Trishul missile on the same day. Considering the technological advancements,  the then Prime Minister, Shri. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, declared 11th May to be celebrated as National Technology Day every year. Technology Day is celebrated as a symbol of quest for scientific inquiry, technological creativity and the translation of that quest in the integration of Science, Society and Industry. This day is also celebrated to honour technological innovations and their successful commercialization which takes the fruits of  research to reach to people at large. Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE) is co-ordinating the State level activities in connection with the observance of National Technology Day. Proposals from academic institutions such as VHSS/ Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs), Polytechnic Colleges, Engineering Colleges, University Department of Engineering Sciences, Research Organizations, Registered NGOs etc, in the Kerala State are selected for the celebration of National Technology Day. The programmes are planned to generate awareness among the students, academia, general public, etc. about the importance of  Technology Day through lectures, seminars, Quiz programmes, exhibitions, elocution etc.

May Day

International Workers’ Day, also known as Labour Day in some countries, and often referred to as May Day,  is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.

The date was chosen by a pan-national organization of socialist and communist political parties to commemorate the Haymarket affair, which occurred in Chicago on 4 May 1886.  The 1904 Sixth Conference of the Second International, called on “all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace.”.

World Post day

World Post day happens each year on October 9, commemorating the date for the establishment of Universal Postal Union (UPU) in 1874 in Bern, Switzerland. The UPU was the start of global communications revolution, allowing people could write to others all over the world.

Penny Black- First postage stamp
Penny Black- First postage stamp

The Penny Black was the world’s first adhesive postage stamp used in a public postal system. It first was issued in Great Britainon 1 May 1840, for official use from 6 May of that year. It features a profile of Queen Victoria.

In 1837, British postal rates were high, complex and anomalous. To simplify matters, Sir Rowland Hill proposed an adhesive stamp to indicate pre-payment of postage. At the time it was normal for the recipient to pay postage on delivery, charged by the sheet and on distance travelled. By contrast, the Penny Black allowed letters of up to 12 ounce (14 grams) to be delivered at a flat rate of one penny, regardless of distance.

Postal delivery systems using what may have been adhesive stamps existed before the Penny Black. The idea had at least been suggested earlier in the Austrian Empire, Sweden, and possibly Greece.

A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Shapes other than rectangular may also be used. There are novelty exceptions, such as wood postcards, made of thin wood, and copper postcards sold in the Copper Country of the U.S. state of Michigan, and coconut “postcards” from tropical islands.

The claimed first printed picture postcard
The claimed first printed picture postcard

The world’s oldest postcard was sent in 1840 to the writer Theodore Hook from Fulham in London, England. The study and collecting of postcards is termed deltiology.

Alzheimer’s Disease(AD)

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), also known as just Alzheimer’s, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.

The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss).  As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues. As a person’s condition declines, they often withdraw from family and society. Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death. Although the speed of progression can vary, the average life expectancy following diagnosis is three to nine years.

The cause of Alzheimer’s disease is poorly understood. About 70% of the risk is believed to be genetic with many genes usually involved. Other risk factors include a history of head injuries, depression, or hypertension. The disease process is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. A probable diagnosis is based on the history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood tests to rule out other possible causes. Initial symptoms are often mistaken for normal ageing. Examination of brain tissue is needed for a definite diagnosis. Mental and physical exercise, and avoiding obesity may decrease the risk of AD. There are no medications or supplements that decrease risk.

No treatments stop or reverse its progression, though some may temporarily improve symptoms. Affected people increasingly rely on others for assistance, often placing a burden on the caregiver; the pressures can include social, psychological, physical, and economic elements. Exercise programmes are beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and can potentially improve outcomes.  Treatment of behavioural problems or psychosis due to dementia with antipsychotics is common but not usually recommended due to there often being little benefit and an increased risk of early death.