Rukhmabai, the first Indian woman physician

Rukhmabai Raut (born November 22, 1864 – September 25, 1955), was an Indian woman who became one of the first practicing women doctors in colonial India. However, first lady physician of India was Dr. Anandi Gopal Joshi, who got her degree on 11 March 1886. But Dr. Joshi could not practise more than a year and so the credit of 1st practising lady physician on the basis of more duration goes to Dr. Rukhmabai Raut, who joined her medical course in 1889 and returned to India in 1894. Dr. Rukhmabai practised for more than 50 years in India.

Ded to India as a first qualified physician and worked for many years in Rajkot and Surat

Rukhmabai was born in Maharashtrian (Marathi) family to Janardhan Pandurang and Jayantibai who came from a community of carpenters(Sutars). When Janardhan Pandurang died, Jayantibai transferred her property to Rukhmabai who was only eight and when she turned eleven, she married her daughter off to Dadaji Bhikaji, then aged nineteen. Jayantibai married a widower, Dr Sakharam Arjun but Rukhmabai stayed in the family home and studied at home using books from a Free Church Mission library. Rukhmabai and her mother were regulars at the weekly meetings of the Prarthanä Samäj and the Arya Mahilä Samäj.[1] Dadaji lost his mother and took to living with his maternal uncle Narayan Dhurmaji. The environment of Dhurmaji’s home pushed Dadaji into a life of indolence and waywardness. Dhurmaji had a mistress at home and his wife attempted suicide. Rukhmabai at the age of twelve refused to move to the household of Dhurmaji to live with Dadaji and Sakharam Arjun supported her decision. In March 1884, Dadaji sent a letter, through his lawyers Chalk and Walker, to Sakharam Arjun asking him to stop preventing Rukhmabai from joining him. Sakharam Arjun responded through civil letters that he was not preventing her but soon he too was forced to obtain legal help. Through lawyers Payne, Gilbert, and Sayani, Rukhmabai provided grounds for refusing to join Dadaji. Dadaji claimed that Rukhmabai was being kept away because she could assert the rights to the property of her father’s.

The Kerala State Film Awards

Kerala State Film Award Sculptures
Kerala State Film Award Sculptures

The Kerala State Film Awards are the film awards for a motion picture made in Kerala. The awards have been bestowed by Kerala State Chalachitra Academy since 1998 on behalf of the Department of Cultural Affairs, Government of Kerala, India.

The awards were started in 1969. From 1969 to 1997, the awards were managed directly by the Department of Cultural Affairs,Government of Kerala. The awardees are decided by an independent jury formed by the academy and the Department of Cultural Affairs, Govt. of Kerala. The jury usually consists of eminent personalities from the film field. For the awards for literature on cinema a separate jury is formed. The academy annually invites films for the award and the jury analyses the films that are submitted before deciding the winners. The awards intends to promote films with artistic values and encourage artists, technicians and producers. The awards are declared by the Minister for Cultural Affairs and are presented by the Chief Minister of Kerala.

The number of awards varies from year to year, considering the changing scenario of motion picture arts within and outside the state of Kerala. The latest number of awards is over 30; the original number of awards in 1969 was 15.

  • J. C. Daniel Award (Lifetime Achievement Awards) for “outstanding contributions to Malayalam cinema”.
  • Best Film: A cash award of Rs.100,000/-, a replica and a certificate to the producer. A cash award of Rs.40,000/-, a replica and a certificate to the director
  • Second Best Film: A cash award of Rs.60,000/-, a replica and a certificate to the producer. A cash award of Rs.30,000/-, a replica and a certificate to the director
  • Best Short Film
  • Best Director: A cash award of Rs.50,000/-, a replica
  • Best Actor: A cash award of 1 Lakh, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Actress: A cash award of 1 Lakh, a replica and a certificate
  • Second Best Actor: A cash award of Rs.50000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Second Best Actress:A cash award of Rs.50000//-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Child Artist: A cash award of Rs.50000//-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Story: A cash award of Rs.50000//-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Screenplay: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Cinematography: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Lyrics: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Music Director: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Background Music: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Singer: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Film Editor: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Art Director: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Sound Recordist: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Processing Lab: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Makeup Artist: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Costume Designer: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Dubbing Artist: A cash award of Rs.7,500/-, a replica and a certificate each
  • Best Choreography: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Film with Popular Appeal and Aesthetic Value: To the producer and director
  • Best Children’s Film: To the producer and director
  • Special Jury Award: A cash award of Rs.30,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Documentary: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate to the producer. A cash award of Rs.9,000/-, a replica and a certificate to the director
  • Best Book on Cinema: A cash award of Rs.15,000/-, a replica and a certificate
  • Best Article on Cinema: A cash award of Rs.8,000/-, a replica and a certificate

Odakkuzhal Award

Odakkuzhal Award is an Indian literary award given by the Indian literary award every year to writers for a particular outstanding work of him/her in Malayalam–language. The award was founded in 1969 by renowned poet G. Sankara Kurup to commemorate the Jnanpith Award he had won and the prize money is Rs. 10,000.