National Science Day

National Science Day is celebrated in India on 28 February each year to mark the discovery of the Raman effect by Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman on 28 February 1928.

For his discovery, Sir C.V. Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.

History of National Science Day

In 1986, the [[National Council for Science and Technology Communication]] asked the Government of India to designate February 28 as National Science Day. The event is now celebrated all over the country in schools, colleges, universities and other academic, scientific, technical, medical and research institutions. On the occasion of the first NSD (National Science Day)(28 February 1987) NCSTC announced institution of the National Science Popularization awards for recognizing outstanding efforts in the area of science communication and population.

Celebration of National Science Day

National science day is celebrated every year on 28 February. The celebration also includes public speeches, radio, TV, science movies, science exhibitions based on themes and concepts, , debates, quiz competitions, lectures, science model exhibitions and many more activities.

Objectives of Celebrating National Science Day

National Science Day is being celebrated every year to widely spread a message about the Importance of science used in the daily life of the people. To display all the activities, efforts and achievements in the field of science for human welfare. It is celebrated to discuss all the issues and implement new technologies for the development in the field of science. To give an opportunity to the scientific minded citizens in the country. To encourage the people as well as popularize the science and technology.

Themes of National Science Day

The theme of the year 1999 was “Our Changing Earth”.

The theme of the year 2000 was “Recreating Interest in Basic Science”.

The theme of the year 2001 was “Information Technology for Science Education”.

The theme of the year 2002 was “Wealth From Waste”.

The theme of the year 2003 was “50 years of DNA & 25 years of IVF – The Blue print of Life”.

The theme of the year 2004 was “Encouraging Scientific Awareness in Community”.

The theme of the year 2005 was “Celebrating Physics”.

The theme of the year 2006 was “Nurture Nature for our future”.

The theme of the year 2007 was “More Crop Per Drop”.

The theme of the year 2008 was “Understanding the Planet Earth”.

The theme of the year 2009 was “Expanding Horizons of Science”.

The theme of the year 2010 was “Gender Equity, Science & Technology for Sustainable Development”.

The theme of the year 2011 was “Chemistry in Daily Life”.

The theme of the year 2012 was “Clean Energy Options and Nuclear Safety”.

The theme of the year 2013 was “Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security”.

The theme of the year 2014 was “Fostering Scientific Temper”.

The theme of the year 2015 was “Science for Nation Building”.

The theme of the year 2016 was on “Scientific Issues for Development of the Nation”.

The theme of the year 2017 was “Science and Technology for Specially Abled Persons”

The theme of the year 2018 was “Science and Technology for a sustainable future.”

The theme of the year 2019 is “Science for the People, and the People for Science”

The theme of the year 2020 is “Women in Science.”

Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are types of viruses that typically affect the respiratory tracts of birds and mammals, including humans. Doctors associate them with the common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and they can also affect the gut.

These viruses are typically responsible for common colds more than serious diseases. However, coronaviruses are also behind some more severe outbreaks.

Over the last 70 years, scientists have found that coronaviruses can infect mice, rats, dogs, cats, turkeys, horses, pigs, and cattle. Sometimes, these animals can transmit coronaviruses to humans.

Most recently, authorities identified a new coronavirus outbreak in China that has now reached other countries. It has the name coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19.

In this article, we explain the different types of human coronaviruses, their symptoms, and how people transmit them. We also focus on three particularly dangerous diseases that have spread due to coronaviruses: COVID-19, SARS, and MERS.

What is a coronavirus?

Researchers first isolated a coronavirus in 1937. They found a coronavirus responsible for an infectious bronchitis virus in birds that had the ability to devastate poultry stocks.

Scientists first found evidence of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in the 1960s in the noses of people with the common cold. Two human coronaviruses are responsible for a large proportion of common colds: OC43 and 229E.

The name “coronavirus” comes from the crown-like projections on their surfaces. “Corona” in Latin means “halo” or “crown.”

Among humans, coronavirus infections most often occur during the winter months and early spring. People regularly become ill with a cold due to a coronavirus and may catch the same one about 4 months later.

This is because coronavirus antibodies do not last for a long time. Also, the antibodies for one strain of coronavirus may be ineffective against another one.

Symptoms

Cold- or flu-like symptoms usually set in from 2–4 days after a coronavirus infection and are typically mild. However, symptoms vary from person-to-person, and some forms of the virus can be fatal.

Symptoms include:

  • sneezing
  • runny nose
  • fatigue
  • cough
  • fever in rare cases
  • sore throat
  • exacerbated asthma

Scientists cannot easily cultivate human coronaviruses in the laboratory unlike the rhinovirus, which is another cause of the common cold. This makes it difficult to gauge the impact of the coronavirus on national economies and public health.

There is no cure, so treatments include self-care and over-the-counter (OTC) medication. People can take several steps, including:

  • resting and avoiding overexertion
  • drinking enough water
  • avoiding smoking and smoky areas
  • taking acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen for pain and fever
  • using a clean humidifier or cool mist vaporizer

A doctor can diagnose the virus responsible by taking a sample of respiratory fluids, such as mucus from the nose, or blood.